The comparative analysis of the intonation of basic positive emotions shows that similar features in the prosody of interest, surprise and joy are present in English and Russian, though the specific variations of intonation characteristic of a language prevail. We will now have a look at the prosodic features, on the one side, and the components of intonation, on the other. Key 5. Basics of intonation. Functions and components of the intonation. Word stress in English. Study of sounds within the limits of language.
Two very important suprasegmental aspects of English pronunciation. Basic types of intonation and their differences from Armenian intonation on the intonation реферат in english. The prosodic and rhythmic means of english language speech: speech rhythm, intonation, volume and tempo, pauses and speech melody.
Exercises and Tasks of Forming Skills of Pupils. Language as main means of intercourse. Cpornye and important questions of theoretical phonetics of modern English. Study of sounds within the limits of language. The historical background of the spread of English and different varieties of the language. Differences between British English and other accents and to distinguish their peculiarities.
Intonation реферат in english, phonological, grammar differences of the English language. The development of American English pronunciation. English changes in which most North American dialects do not participate. Eastern and Southern American English. Australian speech as a subject to debate. Long and short vowels.
Practically all the prosodic features, starting with pitch, are covered by the definition of intonation in the Russian tradition, including voice quality which is marginal, "least linguistic", and for many British linguists used to be an outsider of linguistics called "paralinguistic".
Intonation in the language
Although there is no one-to-one correspondence between intonation components and prosodic features, we can correlate speech melody with tone and pitch range; accent with loudness, which in English is inseparable from tone and tempo; tempo as a linguistic phenomenon with prosodic features of tempo english pause; timbre with voice quality. Actually, the perceptual and the linguistic levels are important for both the speaker and the listener: evidence from psychology of speech production suggests that although most of the speech is automatic, the speaker also must hear oneself talking all the time to check what is being said, together with the reaction of the listener.
Thus we can conclude that intonation operates at the linguistic level, starting from the sentence level, whereas prosody deals with certain physк л I and perceptual features starting from a syllable intonation реферат the whole text.
What they have in common is pitch variation ranking highest among all the components, the most linguistic of all. In the following description of intonation we will focus on pitch variation accompanied by accent, tempo, pause, rhythm and voice quality.
Basics of intonation. Phonostylistic characteristics: Loudness varied according to the size of the audience and to the emotional setting; pauses are long especially between the passages, prolonged emphatic pauses are used to underline the emphasis; rhythm is properly organized; common use of categoric low and high falls in final and initial intination groups and on semantic centres. Sliding contour Stepping contour If we look at a typical example, we would expect a falling pitch pattern on a statement like this: You are from London but a rising pitch pattern if the same words are used as a question: You are from London?
Each prosodic feature is a system in itself which possesses certain units, relative in character. Acoustically, we can take measurements to establish certain values of physical parameters corresponding to each relative, although quite meaningful, category.
Thus, for instance, it was found that in the English language there are different pitch range values in RP, British regional speech and GA for men: in RP an octave 12 semitones is not unusual, whereas regional speech may vary within a narrower range of st semitones only.
In American English the average pitch range is st for men, with the best public speakers reaching 11 st at best.
Some examples of content and structural words. Intonation as a text - organizing means.
The usual procedure in prosodic research is establishing correlation between perceptual categories and their acoustic values. Дата добавления: ; Просмотров: ; Нарушение авторских прав?
Нам важно ваше мнение! This style occurs mainly in informal external and internal relationships in speech of relatives, friends, well - acquainted people and so on.
So this is spontaneous, colloquial, informal, everyday speech. Informational - in press reporting, educational descriptive texts. May be represented in monologues, dialogues, polylogues. Phonostylistic characteristics: Loudness normal or increased; pauses are rather long; rhythm is stable, properly organized; falling tones on the semantic centres, falling- rising in the initial intonation groups.
Intonation system of English in the process of historical development
The intonation example illustrates the use of this intonation pattern in the speech of a radio announcer during news coverage:. Academic scientific - style of lectures conferences, seminars. Oratorial - this term serves for many kinds of oratorial activities especially this style uses in political speeches.
Phonostylistic characteristics: Loudness enormously increased; pauses are definitely long between the passages; rhythm is properly organized; tones mostly emphatic, especially emotionally underlined semantic centres, in non-final intonational groups реферат tones are frequent. Declamatory artistic - this is the style of declamation. This is a highly emotional and expressive english style, that is why it needs special training.
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|Культура общения по интернету реферат||Реферат дж бруно о бесконечности миров||Реферат на тему творчество пушкина в литературе|
|Отчет по производственной практике разработка и эксплуатация||Управление затратами на качество реферат||Дипломная работа на тему обучение персонала|
|Доклад на тему николай степанович гумилев||Процессы жизнедеятельности одноклеточных организмов реферат||Доклад на тему зеленоград|
|Сканирующие туннельные микроскопы доклад||Содержание первой главы диссертации||Доклад о великом человеке россии|
This style can be heard on the stage, on the screen, in a TV studio, thus intonation реферат in english see that it is always a written form of the language read aloud or recited. Phonostylistic characteristics: Loudness varied according to the size of the audience and to the emotional setting; pauses are long especially between the passages, prolonged emphatic pauses are used to underline the emphasis; rhythm is properly organized; common use of categoric low and high falls in final and initial intination groups and on semantic centres.
The second part of the 20th century has been marked by special attention to the investigation of intonational variation expressing emotions in speech.
Being an indispensable component of oral communication, intonation with other linguistic and extra linguistic means serves to distinguish the communicative types of utterances, to identify the speaker and to convey his attitude to the surrounding reality.
Studies of the prosody of emotions are not numerous, though a growing interest in this area is pointed out. There is still no exhaustive definition of the notion emotion; nevertheless in 80s a great input into the theory of emotions was made by C.
Intonation реферат in english material for the investigation was samples of authentic English and Russian emotional spontaneous speech, namely recordings of TV programs, interviews, free talks, situations where people interact in a way that appears spontaneous.
We consider it relevant to study the prosody of emotions expressed in eye-to-eye, informal communication, as this is where human attitudes reveal most explicitly. In the analyzed material 64 spontaneous utterances 32 in English and 32 in Russian rendering the emotional states of surprise, interest and joy were chosen.
The Pitch Component is the variations in the voice pitch which take place when voiced sounds are pronounced in connected speech. Words of gratitude in the English language. The different ways of expressing gratitude in English and intonation patterns which are used if we want to thank someone in English. The typical intonation of phrase "Thank you" and "Thank you very much".Intonation in English - English Pronunciation Lesson
Phonetics as one of the main branch of linguistics. National and regional pronunciation variants in English. Analysis of the aspects of the sound matter of language. Intonation and prosody: definition, functions, components, spheres of application. The importance of English phonetics. The articulatory classification of vowels. Connection with other sciences.
Intonation of the English language
Development of phonology The structure and functions of syllable. The structure of English tone-group. The phonological level of intonation.Rising Intonation - English Pronunciation with JenniferESL